First, we must discuss what a weed is. A weed is defined as anything undesirable in an area of managed landscape. This could be on farms, in nurseries, golf courses, sports fields, lawns, parks, etc. Now we must ask what makes this particular thing undesirable. A lot of the time, it is generally considered a weed because it appears undesirable. It looks bad. We spend so much time and money trying to make our turfgrass healthy and a random broadleaf can make it look unkept. An abundance of weeds looks as if we were negligent and we didn’t take care of, or care about the product we are trying to produce. Aesthetics are generally the first reason we consider a weed a weed on a golf course, but beyond that, weeds weaken the turfgrass around it. Not unlike a disease, the weed becomes parasitic in its new home. It will steal resources such as water and nutrients from surrounding plants, thus weakening the surrounding desirable turfgrass. Once weakened, other invasive weeds begin to germinate. 1 weed turns into 100 weeds quickly when not managed. Once enough weeds take over the turfgrass, it then starts to impact the game of golf by increasing difficulty.
首先，我們必須討論什麼是雜草。雜草的定義是，在一片有管理維護的景觀區域中，任何不想要的植物。這片區域可能是農場、苗圃、高爾夫球場、運動場、庭園式草坪、公園等等。現在我們必須問為什麼這個特定的植物是我們不想要的。很多時候，通常被認為是雜草的原因是，它看起來不是我們想要的樣子，看起來是很糟的。我們花了這麼多時間和金錢，努力讓我們的草坪草健康，而一欉隨機的闊葉草，就會讓它看起來不整潔。大量的雜草看起來好像是我們的疏忽，我們沒有照顧或關心我們正試圖創造的產品。美學通常是我們在高爾夫球場上判定是否為雜草的第一個原因，但除此之外，雜草會削弱它周圍的草坪草。與疾病不同的是，雜草會寄生在它的新家中。它將從周圍的植物中竊取水和養分等資源，進而削弱在它周圍的我們要的草坪草。一旦被削弱，其他具侵入性的雜草就會開始發芽。如果不加以管理，1 株雜草很快就會變成 100 株雜草。一旦雜草夠多，佔據了草坪，它就會開始影響高爾夫球的條件，因為難度增加了。
It is important to understand what we are trying to do when we are managing a golf course. We are not simply there to mow the grass and change the cups – we are there to create a pleasant desirable playing experience. Everything we do is for a reason. It is imperative to understand. If it is not understood, a golf course can never succeed. Weeds diminish the golfing experience and need to be eradicated.
在管理高爾夫球場時，重要的是要了解我們要做的是什麼。我們不只是在割草和換旗位 – 我們是要創造一個愉悅的、想要打球的體驗。我們所做的一切都是有原因的。這個理解是必要的。如果不理解，那麼高爾夫球場就永遠不會成功。雜草會降低高爾夫球的體驗，需要徹底根除。
So how do we eradicate weeds? There are 4 controls when it comes to all pest management. Chemical, Biological, Cultural, & Mechanical. We are all familiar with chemical, it is the use of herbicides to eradicate weeds. Mechanical is routine mowing, cutting weeds down that will not survive at low mowing heights. Biological control is the use of natural enemies, predators, diseases, such as allowing deer to eat broadleaves. And finally cultural, managing inputs that attack why a weed would grow there in the first place.
那麼我們如何根除雜草呢？講到有害生物的管理方法，有 4 種控制方式。化學、生物、養護和機械。我們都很熟悉化學的方式，它是使用除草劑來根除雜草。機械的方式是定期割草，讓無法在低割高度下生存的雜草被割除。生物的控制方式是利用自然天敵、獵食者、疾病，例如讓鹿去吃闊葉草。最後是養護方式，對於雜草一開始會在那裡生長入侵的因素加以管理。
These concepts are not entirely too hard to understand, but they must be understood when looking at and setting up an IPM program. The quickest and most reliable control is the chemical one. It is important to consistently apply herbicides to areas to reduce the amount of weeds present. The key is to be consistent when applying chemicals. Several weeds are very resistant herbicides and multiple applications are necessary. An example of this is Torpedograss Panicum Repens. To successfully eradicate Torpedograsss, there are very few chemicals that work. Glyphosate, or Quinchlorac. Now Glyphosate is not desirable as it is a non-selective and will kill anything that it touches. This would only be useable on rocky areas, waste areas, mulch beds etc. Quinchlorac, a selective herbicide, is really the only known effective, selective control of Torpedograss. However, in my experience, 4 applications, timed 1 week apart is the only success I’ve had in controlling this weed. If one of the applications windows was missed, the entire process needed to start all over again. Think of it like an antibiotic prescription – if you don’t finish the dosage, the antibiotic becomes useless. The same approach can be applied with Quinchlorac and Torpedograss.
這些概念並不是那麼難以理解的，但在研究和設置 IPM 計畫時，必須要理解它們。最快也最可靠的控制方式是化學控制。在現存雜草的區域持續施作除草劑，以減少雜草的數量，這是很重要的。使用化學藥劑的關鍵在於持續施作。有幾種雜草對除草劑的抵抗力相當地高，會需要多次施作。其中一個例子是鋪地黍(Torpedograss)，學名 Panicum Repens。要成功地根除鋪地黍，很少有化學藥劑是有效的。嘉磷塞 (Glyphosate) 或快克草 (Quinchlorac)。其中嘉磷塞是比較不希望使用的，因為它是非選擇性的，會殺死它接觸到的任何東西。這僅適用於岩石區域、廢棄物區域、景觀覆蓋物等等。快克草是一種選擇性除草劑，是實際上唯一已知有效的、選擇性控制鋪地黍的方法。然而，根據我個人的經驗，4 次施作，每次間隔 1 週，是我在控制這種雜草時唯一成功的經驗。如果錯過了其中一次的施作，整個流程就需要全部重新開始。把它想成是抗生素處方 – 如果沒有完成療程，抗生素就會無效。同樣的方式可以應用在快克草和鋪地黍上。
For Mechanical, maintaining mowing frequency is always important and will certainly help with weed control in your facility.
Biological controls are doable, but undesirable approaches to weed management. Biological controls are more useful in insect and disease controls. What they attempt to do is, like mentioned above, manage the weeds out with natural predators. Now this approach is beneficial in the right circumstances, but it should not be the main way to attempt to manage weeds. A complete and full understanding of what you are trying to do needs to be done, as well as a comprehensive plan. More damage can be caused should one not fully understand what they are trying to do.
Cultural controls are a very good and important tool with weed management. A lot of weeds are good indicators of other problems, and they alert you to those problems. For example, Torpedograss is a weed that is normally seen in extremely wet areas. If you see a lot of Torpedograss, then that is a sign an area is being overwatered and is entirely too thatchy. If you see sedge, that is also a sign of overwatering. Goosegrass and spurge are signs of compaction. All of these weeds are alerts to other problems that can be managed. If an area that is too wet and sedge thrives there, drying that area out and controlling the thatch will prevent sedge from growing there in the future. Culturally controlling weeds is the #1 preferred approach to weed management.
When trying to manage your weeds in the future, always consider the IPM approach. Look at different ways and methods to eradicate undesirables. It may be as simple as increasing mowing frequency. It may be as complicated as inducing disease into an area to eradicate widespread weeds. It is important to make a smart, educated decision when deciding what to do. The first step is acknowledging that weed management is necessary. Good luck.
以後在您嘗試管理雜草時，請一定要考慮 IPM 方式。研究不同的方式和方法來消除不想要的植物。簡單的方式可能是增加割草頻率，但也可能是很複雜的，例如在一片區域誘發疾病，藉以根除廣泛分佈的雜草。在決定作法時，做出一個明智的、根據教育基礎的決定是很重要的。第一步就是認知到雜草管理是必要的。祝您好運。